Biochemistry of Metabolism - Cell Biology

Actin Cytoskeleton


Textbook Reading: Due to the lack of information on actin in the print version of  Voet & Voet, Biochemistry, 3rd Edition, readings are recommended in Molecular Biology of the Cell by Alberts et al. (A), Chapter 16.

Some recent articles (optional reading): 
R. D. Hayward & V. Koronakis (2002) "Direct modulation of the host cell cytoskeleton by Salmonella actin-binding proteins," Trends in Cell Biol. 12: 15-20.
A. Glading, D. A. Lauffenburger & A. Wells (2002) "Cutting to the chase: calpain proteases in cell motility," Trends in Cell Biol. 12: 46-54.
A. Bretscher, K. Edwards & R. G. Fehon (2002) "ERM proteins and merlin: Integrators at the cell cortex," Nature Rev. Molec. Cell Biol. 3: 586-599.
R. S. Fischer & V. M. Fowler (2003) "Tropomodulins: life at the slow end," Trends in Cell Biol. 13: 593-601.
T. D. Pollard & G. G. Borisy (2003) "Cellular motility driven by assembly and disassembly of actin filaments," Cell 112: 453-465.
A. M. McGough, C. J. Staiger, J.-K. Min & K. D. Simonetti (2003) "The gelsolin family of actin regulatory proteins: modular structures, versatile functions," FEBS Lett. 552: 75-81.
S. Ono (2003) "Regulation of actin filament dynamics by actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin and actin-interacting protein 1: new blades for twisted filaments," Biochemistry 42: 13363-13370.
R. Dominguez (2004) "Actin-binding proteins - a unifying hypothesis," Trends in Biochem. Sci. 29: 572-578.
V. O. Paavilainen, E. Bertling, S. Falck & P. Lappalainen (2004) "Regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by actin-monomer-binding proteins," Trends in Cell Biol. 14: 386-394.
V. DesMarais, M. Ghosh, R. Eddy & J. Condeeelis (2005) "Cofilin takes the lead," J. Cell Science 118: 19-26.
T. E. B. Stradal, K. Rottner, A. Disanza, S. Confalonieri, M. Innocenti & G. Scita (2004) "Regulation of actin dynamics by WASP and WAVE family proteins," Trends in Cell Biol. 14: 303-311.
S. M. Rafelski & J. A. Theriot (2004) "Crawling toward a unified model of cell motility: spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 73: 209-239.
M. A. Wear & J. A. Cooper (2004) "Capping protein: new insights into mechanism and regulation," Trends in Biochem. Sci. 29: 418-428.
H. N. Higgs (2005) "Formin proteins: a domain-based approach," Trends in Biochem. Sci. 30: 342-353.
M. A. Arnaout, B. Mahalingam & J.-P. Xiong (2005) "Integrin structure, allostery, and bidirectional signaling," Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 21: 381-410.
A. B. Jaffe & A. Hall (2005) "Rho GTPases: biochemistry and biology," Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 21: 247-269.
S. J. Winder & K. R. Ayscough (2005) "Actin-binding proteins," J. Cell Sci. 118: 651-654.
E. G. Yarmola & M. R. Bubb (2006) "Profilin: emerging concepts and lingering misconceptions," Trends in Biochem Sci. 31: 197-205.
G. M. Popowicz, M. Schleicher, A. A. Noegel & T. A. Holak (2006) "Filamins: promiscuous organizers of the cytoskeleton," TRENDS in Biochem. Sci. 31: 411-419.
T. P. Stossel, G. Fenteany & J. H. Hartwig (2006) "Cell surface actin remodeling," J. Cell Sci. 119: 3261-3264.
P. Percipalle & N. Visa (2006) "Molecular functions of nuclear actin in transcription," J. Cell Biol. 172: 967-971.
B. L. Goode & M. J. Eck (2007) "Mechanism and function of formins in the control of actin assembly," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 76: 593-627.

Potential Test Questions:

1a. Diagram and describe the structure of an actin monomer. What nucleotide associates with actin, and where is the nucleotide binding site? How does actin polymerization and depolymerization affect the tendency of actin to hydrolyze or exchange its bound nucleotide? 
b. Describe the interaction between profilin and actin. How does profilin affect the ability of actin to polymerize into filaments? Briefly describe how interaction of profilin with the plasma membrane lipid PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate) may regulate actin polymerization adjacent to the plasma membrane? 
c. What is the nature and role of the Arp2/3 complex? Diagram and describe how activation of Arp2/3 alters the cytoskeleton. Describe how Arp2/3 complex may be involved in forward movement of a lamellipodium. Summarize the roles of Rac (a member of the Rho protein family), Scar/WAVE (a member of the WASP family), and cofilin in forward movement of the lamellipodium?

Copyright 1998-2007 by Joyce J. Diwan. All rights reserved.

Lecture Notes on
Actin Cytoskeleton

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