Rensselaer’s Cognitive Science Department was formed in 2001 from the former Philosophy, Psychology, and Cognitive Sciences Departments. The highly interdisciplinary program brings together computer engineering and such social sciences as psychology, a combination that is increasingly necessary in a world in which humans must constantly interact with ever-more-complex thinking machines.
Yingrui Yang, an assistant professor who specializes in human reasoning and decision-making, was the first new faculty hire. He collaborates with Bringsjord on war-gaming work. Assistant Professor Brett Fajen also joined the faculty in 2001. His expertise is in perception and action, dynamical systems modeling, and virtual environments.
Professors Wayne Gray and Ron Sun brought their expertise in computational cognitive modeling to the department. The newest faculty addition is Assistant Professor Nick Cassimatis, who had been working at the Naval Research Laboratory’s AI Center to improve the conversational abilities of robots.
A new doctoral program in cognitive science was implemented last fall at Rensselaer. The advanced degree places special emphasis on developing next-generation “intelligent” systems. Research largely focuses on human perception, attention, motor control, memory, language, problem solving, and reasoning to model, enhance, predict, and measure human intelligence and performance.
“This program in cognitive science will enable students to prepare for myriad career opportunities,” says John Harrington, dean of humanities and social sciences. “Those opportunities are as varied as engineering automated air and road traffic-control systems and enhancing data-mining techniques for faster breakthroughs in health and medicine, to creating more effective electronic tutors for schoolchildren, and developing new sophisticated interactive software for any number of applications.”
Members of Rensselaer’s Cognitive Science Department conduct research in next-generation AI, next-generation computational cognitive modeling, and cognitive engineering. Many projects involve aspects of all three research areas.
A cognitive system human or artificial can perceive information in the environment, analyze that information, and act upon it, according to Bringsjord, who directs the Rensselaer Artificial Intelligence and Reasoning (RAIR) Laboratory. Bringsjord argues in favor of the term “Psychometric Artificial Intelligence,” which is taken from psychometrics, the science of measuring and testing psychological properties. Under this definition, an artificial agent is intelligent only if it excels at all established, validated tests of intelligence.
Bringsjord led the team that developed PERI (Psychometric Experimental Robotic Intelligence), a 3-foot-tall robot with a vision system and a dexterous manipulator. The AI used in PERI is based on logic instead of on patterns, mathematics, and numerical computing. Using these talents, PERI became the first robot to pass part of an IQ test. The robot achieved a perfect score on a section of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, a timed test in which colored blocks are arranged to match card designs.
At present, Bringsjord’s team is working to help PERI pass two harder sections of the IQ test. In one, examinees are given pieces of an object. They must figure out what it is and put the pieces together. In the other, examinees are given a group of snapshots of people, and they must assemble the pieces to make a coherent story.
Bringsjord, who is a consultant to gaming, multimedia, and e-learning companies, has also built Brutus, a creative AI system that can write short stories of up to 500 words based on the concepts of betrayal, deception, and evil.
RAIR lab researchers are interested in the entire concept of advanced synthetic characters, whether they appear as robots or as characters in the advanced computer games developed in the RAIR lab. At present, the group is working on “E,” an evil character who is very good at lying.
Bringsjord and Research Assistant Professor Konstantine Arkoudas are funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to build an intelligent system that can learn by reading. The first year of the grant is for $400,000, with two more optional years following, for a total award of $1.2 million. The system will be based on MARMML (Multi-Agent Reasoning and Mental Metalogic), which was developed by Arkoudas and others in earlier work. Unlike current systems, the intelligent machine envisioned by Bringsjord and Arkoudas would be able to read about a new topic and create mental models of the material, to weave the new knowledge with what it already knows, and to understand context issues such as who wrote the article and why. It would also be able to make inferences from the material and to communicate about the topic in English. Finally, it would be able to work cooperatively as part of a team of machines.
“Humans learn best and most efficiently by reading and yet the brute fact is that machines, though often touted as learning this and that, can’t read. And humans do something very special when they read intelligently: they ponder, almost automatically, how their new knowledge might solve future problems they encounter,” says Bringsjord. “Our goal is to take appreciable steps toward implementing machine learning at the genuinely human level an intelligent machine that can read books, comprehend and reflect on what’s read, answer questions in English, and then explain why it answered the way it did.”
Nick Cassimatis, who works on integrated models of language and physical reasoning, says most people don’t realize how many aspects there are to human conversation. The ear records sound waves, and the brain knows what syllables they represent. The mind understands how the words fit together linguistically. The listener fits the new information into what is already known and, at the same time, gets into the speaker’s mind, reaching conclusions about what the speaker is trying to say. All of these processes are currently modeled using different computational techniques. He is working to integrate those processes to simulate the process humans perform naturally and instantaneously.
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